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As urban environments are continuously changing and settings are spatiotemporal highly heterogeneous, such approaches allow to plan and control sustainable infrastructure development with respect to natural resources. Prerequisites are analyses of resource systems and an inventory of current and future profiles of P. Huggenberger and J. Epting eds. Epting such systems together with the definition of targets and goals for specific urban regions Sect.

We focus on how to advance an understanding of some of the relevant process in urban environments and on developing methods for testing hypotheses. In a next step, we outline risk profiles for subsurface resources, which comprise the determination of principal hazards or risk patterns for subareas and different resource users. This also includes the identification, localization, and capture of the relevant processes that lead to specific risk situations i. Thereby, the detection of risk situations is the basis for differentiated subsurface resource protection measures Sect.

The management of resources in urban areas requires a definition of manageable units of the subsurface.

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The delineation of such units not only is relevant for the exploitation of subsurface resources, but also allows to define boundaries and to derive fluxes of heat and mass including water compounds across these boundaries Sect. We present a sustainable regional planning concept for the use and protection of water resources that allows us to address both spatial and temporal aspects of groundwater vulnerability.

Furthermore, we discuss the role of quality control systems, which include the monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters, the definition of Critical Control Points CCPs as well as flux calculations, which can be derived from groundwater modeling Sect.

In the context of the ongoing debates on the impact of anthropogenic and climate change to quantitative and qualitative aspects of groundwater resources, we evaluated and summarized the present state of the groundwater temperatures in the city Basel. In three parts, we discuss 1 several positive and negative feedback mechanisms concerning water and thermal budgets and the impacts of climate change in urban environments; 2 the effects of predicted climate change on groundwater vulnerability in urban environments; and 3 analyses of historical groundwater temperature data to delineate different zones of urban groundwater bodies GWB and to optimize future observation networks Sect.

This basis of information also allows us to develop tools for seismological prediction of subsurface behavior during major earthquakes.

The provision of tailored database and GIS applications, including preliminary data analysis, 2D and 3D data as well as geostatistical analysis will be 1 Content 3 highlighted. In this chapter, we also address general statements regarding the role of data for urban geological and hydrogeological issues Sect. In a next step, we present some basic elements for adaptive resource management, which include 1 the setup of adequate observation networks for monitoring; 2 selection of appropriate modeling tools; and 3 the definition and realization of specific field measurements to close existing knowledge gaps.

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We discuss some general thoughts concerning the optimal design of observation networks and the appropriate selection of measurement parameters. Further, we illustrate the choice of some available geological and hydrogeological modeling approaches for different environmental questions Sect. As an example for comprehensive field investigations we present some hydrogeophysical research methods, including their applicability in urban environments. We show that the application of such methods allows a spatial continuous characterization of the subsurface and can be used for a nondestructive mapping and monitoring Sect.

Most urban aquifers are characterized by a high natural and anthropogenic heterogeneity of the subsurface as well as a large spatial variability of hydraulic parameters. Therefore, detailed knowledge of subsurface structures is an important prerequisite for the understanding and solution of specific problems related to adaptive resource management.

We present some of the existing concepts and methods for the assessment and description of subsurface heterogeneity. Emphasis is placed on structure analyses using geostatistical approaches Sect. When studying geological and hydrogeological processes a huge amount of spatiotemporal data accumulate, which have to be analyzed and interpreted. In this chapter, we present methods such as nonlinear statistics that allow the extraction of relevant information by hiding unnecessary information of complex datasets Sect. In a first set of case studies we address protection issues of groundwater production and river restoration in urban areas, with a focus on drinking water supply aspects.

We present protection schemes for several major drinking water supplies in the region of Basel. We focus on hydrogeoecological issues in the context of river restoration projects in urban environments. Urbanization in the last century created a series of environmental problems such as flooding, groundwater pollution and ecological changes, including a decrease of characteristic habitats of riverine landscapes together with a drastic reduction of species.

With three examples, we illustrate strategies to integrate hydrogeoecological aspects in an early planning process of engineering projects as drinking water and flood protection measures or river restoration in urban areas. Further we focus on the setup of monitoring 4 P. Epting networks and modeling tools, river—groundwater interaction, aquifer heterogeneity, and the reconciliation of water engineering measures along rivers.

In a second set of case studies, we address engineering and hydrogeological questions that emerged during the development of urban infrastructure projects in the region of Basel.

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  8. Here, we focus on groundwater management and protection issues during and after completion of two infrastructure development and upgrading projects. In a third set of case studies, we encompass management concepts as well as monitoring, modeling and remediation strategies for contaminated sites in transboundary settings. In a first case study, we discuss strategies to understand and predict the cumulative effects of the numerous single impacts on groundwater resources during a major suburban development project.

    In a second case study, we illustrate the development of groundwater pollution in a heavily industrialized groundwater protection area during the last decades. In the fourth set of case studies, we address karst in urban environments. Groundwater circulation in evaporate-bearing horizons and the resulting evolution of karst frequently causes geotechnical problems such as land-subsidence or collapses. Such processes are of particular concern in urban areas where soluble geological formations coincide with vulnerable infrastructures as transportation systems.

    In this chapter, we focus on two case studies where subrosion, landsubsidence, and impacts on infrastructures have been observed. The case studies allow the illustration of the complex interrelations between natural phenomena and processes that are induced by present-day engineering and subsurface activities in the region of Basel. In the fifth set of case studies, we address the use of shallow geothermal energy in urban environments. Increasing geothermal energy use can exceed the subsurface potential for different heating and cooling systems and effect groundwater quality.

    In the first case study, we present a concept that allows to rapidly evaluate proposed drilling sites that are suitable for geothermal use. In the second case, we present a thermal groundwater management concept on the basis of developed monitoring and modeling tools. In a sixth set of case studies we deal with natural hazards in a regional context, including earthquakes and earthquake risk reduction, major flood events, and flood protection measures.

    Chapter 2 Settings in Urban Environments Peter Huggenberger and Jannis Epting The history of subsurface resource use in urban areas is generally dominated by the activities during industrialization and even more so since the s. If we want to understand the present condition of the quantitative and qualitative status of subsurface resources, especially concerning water resources in urban areas, we need to know the changes that occurred during this time period. Such changes include infrastructure development as the use of the subsurface for the construction of traffic lines which often interfere directly with water resources.

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    These changes to the subsurface structure and the numerous anthropogenic impacts make urban geological and hydrogeological issues complex. Additionally, innovative concepts for efficient management and resource protection for the subsurface are sparse. At the beginning of the last century, diseases and severe health problems made society aware of the negative impacts of intense and abusive resource exploitation. Especially in urban environments, the variety of pollution is generally more diverse compared to rural areas.

    This deficit causes severe problems today, when dealing with questions about the use of groundwater, the construction of traffic lines, waste disposal sites, or geothermal use of the subsurface. It also can be expected that these problems will accelerate in the near future. For optimized and sustainable water resource use in urban regions, therefore, efficient and cost-effective management tools are essential to maintain quality of life and to ensure that water is available for use by future generations Eiswirth et al. Sustainable use of soil, groundwater, and other important resources in urban areas is hence a key issue of European environmental policy Prokop Whereas rules for land and surface resource management exist, rules for subsurface planning and management e.

    Due to the lack of rules for urban subsurface use, current planning procedures do not account for the interactions between different P. Epting usages of the subsurface and consequently subsurface resources use is most likely inefficient and can lead to considerable risks. Another example is the observed land uplift as a result of well construction for the geothermal use of the shallow subsurface that came along with the connection of confined aquifers with rocks that are susceptible to swelling Staufen, southwest Germany.

    To develop concepts and methods for sustainable subsurface use in urban areas, environmental impact assessments not only have to include above-ground impairments, such as ground motions with effects on existing buildings and infrastructures, noise exposure and air pollution, but also the negative impacts on subsurface resources. In order to develop rules for the use of urban subsurface space, the complexity of emerging problems has to be broken down into elements. Therefore, the challenge is to integrate innovative concepts into effective, holistic plans for sustainable resource planning and management.

    This chapter summarizes the settings in urban environments and highlights how they differ from rural areas. Further we focus on infrastructure development and use conflicts in urban areas, legal backgrounds as well as the general settings of the described case studies. Therefore, the subsurface in urban areas is used more frequently for the growth of city infrastructure and traffic lines.

    Such constructions can temporarily affect urban groundwater systems during the construction period and permanently after completion. Subsurface constructions inevitably increase the pressure on urban groundwater resources and often involve a reduction of cross-sectional groundwater flow and aquifer-storage capacities.

    As a result subsurface resources are subject to ongoing adaptations under changing hydrological and technical boundary conditions.

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    Often infrastructure development and associated changes in land-use largely takes the pragmatic form of engineering for short-term benefits. New subsurface infrastructure often is realized under difficult geotechnical and hydrogeological conditions. In particular, tunnel construction in unconsolidated rocks and below the water table can lead to a higher risk of surface subsidence or collapse.

    To maintain the rapid pace of city life while ensuring that safety standards are met on construction sites, geotechnical measures such as cement injections for subsurface stabilization in unconsolidated rock are commonly used. The potential for hazards during construction is considerably high. Substances used on the construction site as remains of cement injections as well as the used substantives can lead to contamination.

    Furthermore, such stabilization measures may lead to adverse effects on groundwater flow regimes with regard to quantity and quality of water resources.

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    For this reason, constructions within the groundwater should be limited to the necessary. In case no other solutions are available, the question should be raised on how the impact of such constructions can be minimized. Altogether, constructions of infrastructure facilities e. In Chap. The concepts base on the understanding of the principal hydrogeological and geotechnical processes in urban areas. Additionally, historical aspects of the development of urban areas have to be considered contaminated areas, infrastructure and public transportation development in the shallow unconsolidated and consolidated subsurface, water supply, subrosion processes, etc.

    While some usages only temporarily affect urban groundwater systems, e.

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    Competing usages in urban areas further include: 1. The extraction for drinking water supply and industrial processes. Thermal groundwater use, including groundwater extractions and injections for cooling processes and heat production. Water engineering measures, including flood control, construction site drainages, construction parts reaching into the aquifer and storm water management.

    The growing use of water for modern city architecture like fountains, small streams, ponds, lakes, water-plays, etc. It is likely that a higher density of the mentioned projects will lead to more use conflicts in the future. These different usages can result in significant changes in groundwater quality and dynamics of both local and regional groundwater flow regimes.

    It is an important issue of adaptive resource management Sect. Further examples or topics of use conflicts are discussed in separate book chapters. Epting Legal Background Although legal frameworks for subsurface protection and policy strategies have continuously been adjusted in the last decades, considerable damages to subsurface resources and groundwater flow regimes still occur.